* In March 1989, six months after Becky Bell’s death, 16-year-old Erica Kae Richardson of Cheltenham, Maryland was assisted by her aunt in obtaining an abortion without her mother’s consent or knowledge. Erica’s aunt, a registered nurse, first took her to Washington Hospital Center, which would not perform the abortion because the pregnancy was 19 weeks along. She then took her to the Metropolitan Women’s Center in Laurel, where Dr. Gene Crawford carried out the abortion, puncturing her uterus in the process. Erica died several hours later from “rupture of [her] lower uterus and cervix with complications, including hemorrhage into the pelvic cavity surrounding the uterus and air embolism.”    
Traditionally, the concept of personhood entailed the soul , a metaphysical concept referring to a non-corporeal or extra-corporeal dimension of human being which is absent in other creatures. Today, the concepts of subjectivity and intersubjectivity , personhood , mind , and self have come to encompass a number of aspects of human being previously considered the domain of the "soul".   Thus, while the historical question has been: when does the soul enter the body , in modern terms, the question could be put instead: at what point does the developing individual develop personhood or selfhood. 
In 2008 American Psychological Association (APA) Task Force on Mental Health and Abortion published a major review of the literature on abortion and mental health. They concluded that "it is clear that some women do experience sadness, grief, and feelings of loss following termination of a pregnancy, and some experience clinically significant disorders, including depression and anxiety."  But giving birth to an unplanned pregnancy may also be stressful. Examining the evidence comparing these two options, the Task Forced concluded that the risk of mental health problems following a single, first-trimester induced abortion of an adult women is no greater than carrying an unwanted pregnancy to term. While observing that abortion may both relieve stress and "engender additional stress," they explicitly rejected the idea that abortion is "inherently traumatic."