Despite the tremendous effect Impressionism had on the structure of the art world, it was still a style based on optical observation and the rendering of light effects through paint. Post-Impressionism is significant primarily for the move beyond optical consideration as a primary vehicle for artistic depiction and expression. The work of pioneers like Van Gogh, Cezanne, Gauguin, Toulouse- Lautrec, Redon, Munch, and Ensor is only outweighed by the extraordinary influence their art had on the founders of modernism proper in the early twentieth century. Modernism as a term describes and encompasses three fundamental changes in artistic attitude, practice, and culture precipitated by wide-ranging socio-cultural, political, and scientific developments: (1.) radical changes and innovation in artistic form and content, (2.) a new conception of the legacy and role of artistic tradition and subsequently, the emergence of a distinct, cohesive, and ideologically persuasive avant-garde culture heavily influenced by non-Western culture, and (3.) a new understanding of physical reality in the wake of significant scientific and technological discoveries. These new attitudes are first recognizable in a real, concrete way during the post-Impressionist period. So if post-Impressionism doesn't exactly make sense in terms of stylistic categories or actual visual output, it can be considered a cohesive movement in terms of its underlying conceptual foundation, especially that of Symbolism, and its opening of issues central to later modernist exploration. Vincent van Gogh is responsible for spearheading many of these formal advances.
Galeria Sztuki 1999
Galeria Sztuki Współczesnej Zacheta, Warsaw. Jim Dine, David Hockney, Jasper Johns, Roy Lichtenstein, Claes Oldenburg, Robert Rauschenberg, James Rosenquist, Frank Stella: Współczesna grafika amerykańska z kolekcji Torstena Lilji (Jim Dine, David Hockney, Jasper Johns, Roy Lichtenstein, Claes Oldenburg, Robert Rauschenberg, James Rosenquist, Frank Stella: The contemporary American graphics collection of Lilja Torsten) . Joanna Młodzińska. Warsaw: Galeria Sztuki Współczesnej Zache̜ta, 1999. Exhibition catalogue.